Global Energy Monitor


What do the colored dots mean?

The colors indicate the mine status category:

  • Proposed: All projects that have been announced (via corporate or government planning documents), under permitting (including feasibility studies), or under construction are considered “proposed.” A proposal is considered active if it has shown activity over the past two years. The proposed category only includes mine projects and mine expansions for which a designed capacity figure of 1 million tonnes per annum has been projected.
  • Operating: Mines that have begun coal removal are considered operating. This includes mines that have produced coal within the year, even if temporarily suspended by work stoppages or care and maintenance. In China, mines are considered “operational” once testing operations and experimental operations begin, which is prior to commercial production.
  • Cancelled: Mine projects with a formal announcement from corporate or government authorities to abandon all planning. Similarly, if no updates or evidence of progress has been observed for a period of 3+ years, GEM also assigns a status of “cancelled.”  
  • Shelved: A proposed mine is “shelved” if there have been no updates or evidence that the project is proceeding for a period of 2+ years. 
  • Retired: Once operating mines that have been permanently retired.
  • Mothballed: Mines that are neither operating nor officially retired, such as those put on “care and maintenance.”
Can I change the status categories that the map is showing?

Yes, go to the legend (bottom left corner of the map) and click in the box next to a color.

I’ve zoomed in, but don’t see a coal mine. Why?

If a coal mine is still in the proposal phase, prior to construction and extraction, there may be no sign of activity. In other cases, only approximate location information could be found. Underground mines may show limited activity above ground. Finally, satellite photos in some geographies are updated infrequently, so recent activity is not shown.

How do I find out if a location is exact or approximate?

Locations tend to be known with greater accuracy as mines move from early stages of development toward construction. To find out the coordinates of a location and whether a location is exact or approximate, click on the location dot, select the wiki page, and look under “Project Details.”


Can I see a list of the coal mines?

Yes, click on “Table View” in the top left corner of the map.


How were the methane figures derived?

The tracker uses a calculation based on production, gas content at mine depth, and an emissions factor coefficient. For details, see Estimating Methane Emissions from Coal mineson

Workforce Size

How were the workforce size estimates derived?

The Global Coal Mine Tracker gathers information on the employment numbers of coal mines listed in the dataset. In cases where employment data is not available, the Global Coal Mine Tracker employs a machine-learning model to predict the workforce size of a particular coal mine, utilizing various input features for the estimation. For details, see  GEM’s methodology wiki on estimating coal mine workforce size.


Does the tracker show all the operating mines in each country?

The Global Coal Mine Tracker includes all operating mines producing 1 million tonnes per annum or more with smaller mines included at discretion. Future updates will include smaller mines and increase global coverage.

Does the tracker show all proposed mines in each county?

The Global Coal Mine Tracker includes all proposed mines and mine expansions with a capacity of 1 million tonnes per annum or greater. Future updates will include smaller projects.

What is the difference between “production” and “capacity?”

Production is the coal output of a mine and capacity is the amount of coal the mine is engineered to produce. The tracker provides coal production data in million tonnes (Mt) at operating mines and designed capacity (Mt) at proposed operations. If recent production figures are unavailable at an operating mine, then capacity figures are substituted.

Does production tonnage refer to unprocessed run of mine (ROM) coal or saleable coal?

Whenever possible, the tracker uses saleable production figures (the tonnage after processing) rather than ROM tonnage recorded before processing that may include raw materials and waste.

How do you define coal reserves?

The tracker collects data on coal reserves and resources at each operation and project in million tonnes (Mt) and defined in compliance with international JORC reporting standards. The Total Reserve figure includes measured resources that are sufficiently “proved” and indicated/measured resources that are “probable.” For details, seeCoal Reserves” on

Improving the Tracker

What if I find an error or a missing project?

Please fill out an error report form here.


Who built this tool?

The tracker was designed and produced by Global Energy Monitor. The coalfield base-layer was created by Alice McGown (LINGO). Web/GIS programming was done by Tom Allnutt (GreenInfo Network), with support from Tim Sinnott (GreenInfo Network).

The information in the tracker has been verified by researchers familiar with particular countries, including current contributors: Jelena Babajeva, Wynn Feng, Tiffany Means, Xiaojun Peng, Claire Pitre, and Mingxin Zhang.

The project manager is Dorothy Mei, with project support from program manager Flora Champenois.

Appreciation is also extended to the tracker’s past contributors: Özgür Acir (Association of Geological Researches – JADE), Noorafsha Adbulla (Conservation Action Trust), Paula Baker (GEM), Mary Beckman (GEM), James Browning (F Minus), Bob Burton, Gregor Clark, Dulguun Gantulga,  Anne Grainger (Coal Action Network), Celia Hack, Julie Joly, Prasad Khale (Conservation Action Trust), Madhuresh Kumar (NAPM India), Yedan Li, Ted Nace, Kerry Nelson, Dan O’Beirne, Christine Shearer, Ryan Driskell Tate, Adrian Wilson, Aiqun Yu, Ege Yuzbas, Scott Zimmerman, and Medha Kapoor.

How do I cite the data?

Please refer to the Download Data page for citation guidance.